Tag: Canada

5 Takeaways from Ontario’s Proposed Cannabis Law

As Canada’s federal cannabis legalization bill winds its way through Parliament, the province of Ontario yesterday unveiled the text of their cannabis regulation efforts as it passed through its first reading in the provincial legislature.

Under the new rules, law enforcement can close illegal dispensaries and block all public entrances until a judge issues a final judgement on the charges.

In a confusing twist, the province has called the new bill the “Cannabis Act, 2017,” which is nearly identical to the name of the federal legislation that’ll legalize cannabis nationwide. Even more confusing is some of the legalese contained within the province’s proposed law. That’s why we at Leafly have decided to put on our policy-analysis hat and bring you some of the most significant bits of the upcoming provincial law.

1. Dispensaries and landlords are going to face some huge monetary penalties

As reported earlier by Leafly, individuals who sell outside the legal system could face fines of up to $250,000, while corporations could be fined up to $1 million. These penalties apply to both the dispensaries that lease space and the owners of the property. Plus, those figures come into play on just the first offence. On subsequent offences, penalties could be even more crippling: Individuals would be subject to daily fines that max out at $100,000 per day the offence continues, while corporations will face fines of up to $500,000 per day of the offence. Beyond fines is the prospect of jail time, with individuals facing up to a year in jail for a first offence and two years for subsequent offences.

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2. Dispensaries can now be shut down after being charged

Until now, police have been able to search dispensaries pursuant to warrants and arrest individuals inside—but there hasn’t been an effective, legal method to force closure of the shops. While some dispensaries closed after being raided, others quickly re-opened, sometimes in a new location and with a new staff.  Under the new rules, if someone is charged with illegally selling cannabis at a specific location such as a dispensary, law enforcement now has the ability to close the store and block all public entrances until a judge has made a final judgement on the charges, which, as anyone who has ever been involved in the court system knows, can take a protracted amount of time. Once a judge convicts the person that used the premises to illegally sell cannabis, courts will now have the ability to order that the premises be shut down for a period of up to two years.

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3. The province did not enact a law against “public display” of cannabis
In some of the early legalization states south of the border, it’s illegal to open your bag of legal cannabis and display it in public, including in Colorado (where’s it’s considered a ‘petty’ offence) and in Washington (where it’s punishable by a fine). There’s no similar offence in Ontario’s proposed bill, despite the fact that public consumption will be outlawed. So, is this a blind spot within the new law? Potentially, though it could be dealt with as the bill winds its way through the provincial Legislature. In addition, municipalities may try to take it upon themselves to implement such a prohibition within their boundaries.

The province is seeking changes to the Highway Traffic Act that would require certain drivers to have zero trace of cannabis in their systems.

4. Young and novice drivers cannot have any cannabis in their system when operating a motor vehicle
The province is seeking changes to the Highway Traffic Act that would require certain drivers to have zero trace of cannabis in their systems. All young drivers, defined as those under 22 years of age, and all novice drivers (including any driver with a G1 and G2 licence) must remain drug-free. Under federal law, the police will be able to take an oral swab upon having reasonable grounds to believe the driver is impaired. Under the proposed provincial law, a positive result on the swab could be used to determine that a young or novice driver does in fact have traces of cannabis in their system. Young drivers who violate this offence for the first time will face a fine of between $60 to $500 and a license suspension of 30 days. Novice drivers will face the same fine, but license suspensions would be up to the Registrar in accordance with regulations. Interestingly, the province is exempting medical cannabis users from this offence, though the federal government is still going ahead with prohibiting anyone from driving with 2ng/ml or above of THC in their blood. Also, take note that the province (and federal government) still both have strict offences against impaired driving which apply to all drivers, not just the young and novice ones.

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5. Authorized medical cannabis patients may be exempt from consumption laws in certain circumstances
Think of the all the places where either alcohol or tobacco consumption is currently prohibited in Ontario. It will be illegal to consume cannabis in those same places. However, there appears to be some wiggle room for federally authorized medical marijuana patients. Under the new law, medical cannabis would be allowed in residential hospices and care facilities, designated psychiatrist facilities, and scientific research and testing facilities under certain conditions. Hotels, motels, and inns will now have the ability to accommodate medical cannabis use in fully-enclosed sleeping suites, though this exception doesn’t carry over to non-medical cannabis users.

Just like the federal bill, the provincial bill could be subject to change as it snakes through the legislature. Stay tuned.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Ontario’s ‘Cannabis Act, 2017’: Provincial Control, Million-Dollar Penalties

The Ontario government is one step closer to its goal of overseeing cannabis sales and distribution in the province and shutting down the province’s popular but illegal dispensaries.

Ontario’s Cannabis Act, 2017 gives the provincial government full reign of the cannabis industry.

Ontario’s proposed Cannabis Act, 2017—presented by Attorney General Yasir Naqvi in Queen’s Park today—follows through with legislation that gives the provincial government full reins of the cannabis industry.

Under the new regulations, recreational cannabis in Ontario will be sold online and in 40 storefronts that will be open in time for the July 2018 deadline for federal legalization, expanding to 150 stores across the province by 2020.

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An Ontario Liquor Control Board subsidiary called the Ontario Cannabis Retail Corporation will operate the retail spaces. (“OCRC. Get used to it,” as Toronto Star reporter Robert Benzie tweeted.)

Customers will have to be 19 or older to purchase and consume the products. The age limit will also apply to possession, home growing, and use. Smoking in public spaces—including lounges, workplaces or vehicles— will be illegal, and the Smoke-Free Ontario Act will be updated to include vaping and e-cigarettes, in an effort to protect people from second-hand smoke.

Ontario’s government announced that it will stamp out black-market dispensaries by ‘introducing new provincial offences with strict, escalating penalties.’

Most notably, the provincial government announced that it will stamp out the province’s black-market dispensaries by “introducing new provincial offences with strict, escalating penalties.”

According to CTV News, the fines for cannabis sales outside the legal framework will be up to $250,000 for individuals and/or jail of up to two years less a day, while corporations would face fines of up to $1 million. Ontario will also allow police to shut down spaces they suspect are being used to illegally sell, produce, or distribute marijuana. Landlords who knowingly rent to illegal growers and sellers will also face the strict fines.

As for price, a $10-a-gram price point is being considered for all strains, as a way to deter illegal sales.

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Premier Kathleen Wynne stressed that, contrary to what some might think, the government would not be making huge financial gains from cannabis sales. “This, actually, isn’t about money from my perspective,” Wynne told the Toronto Star. “This is about making sure that a substance that needs to be regulated is regulated in a safe and responsible way. And that’s exactly the approach we are taking.”

Toronto Mayor Tory stressed that all illegal dispensaries will be shut down going forward.

Later this month, Ontario will reveal where the first stores will be located throughout the province. One strict condition is that the retailer not be located near where minors are known to assemble, like elementary schools.

“We will work with municipalities to make sure that they are in places that are appropriate, just as LCBO stores are in places that are appropriate,” Wynne said.

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As Toronto Mayor John Tory told reporters Wednesday, the new rules will clear up any confusion about who sells cannabis and how it’s sold: “Make no mistake, this is all about the rule of law. I am very comfortable with the direction in which the Ontario government is going.”

Tory stressed that all illegal dispensaries will be shut down going forward.

The news release also stated that The Smoke-Free Ontario Act will be updated to include vaping and the use of e-cigarettes in an effort to protect people from second-hand smoke.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Toronto Stock Exchange Issues Warning to Cannabis-Related Companies

In yet another sign that legalized cannabis is going mainstream, the Canadian cannabis industry has now lived through its own “Black Tuesday” moment. On October 16, the Toronto Stock Exchange announced that any cannabis-related companies that are violating US federal cannabis laws—by, for example, selling or growing cannabis in the United States—might be “delisted” from the exchange. Or in the words of an exchange spokesman, “If you’re violating federal law, you’re out.”

On October 16, the Toronto Stock Exchange announced that any cannabis-related companies violating US federal cannabis laws might be “delisted” from the exchange.

The response was swift and predictable. By Tuesday, shares in Aphria, an Ontario-based cannabis producer with operations in Florida and Arizona, had plunged by 13%. Calgary-based Maple Leaf Green World, which is pursuing a medical cultivation operation in Nevada, saw prices fall by 10%. Even Canopy Growth, Canada’s largest licensed cannabis producer, which has no US operations, suffered an 8% decline in its share price.

To be clear, this was not a market meltdown. The selloff was fairly narrowly contained—only around two dozen of the Toronto Stock Exchange’s 1,498 listed companies, or “issuers,” are directly involved in the cannabis business, and only four of those have significant U.S. operations (which, by the way, is perfectly legal under Canadian securities law).

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That’s a small fraction of Canada’s 69 publicly traded cannabis-related companies, most of which are listed on the TMX Group’s main rival, the Canadian Securities Exchange (which is not threatening any delisting action). Further, industry insiders note that the exchange’s parent company, TMX Group, hasn’t reached any firm decision on delisting, but is still in the process of reviewing companies’ operations.

An Impediment to Investment?

Still, the timing of TMX’s announcement wasn’t ideal. With Canada’s recreational market set to open in just eight months, cannabis companies are scrambling to ramp up production to meet consumer demand that, by most accounts, will significantly exceed supply. To fund that growth, cannabis firms are hungry for investment. Aphria, for example, had just raised $80 million by selling 11 million new company shares only days before the TMX announcement.

The move by the Toronto Stock Exchange underscores the financial uncertainties that still plague Canadian cannabis despite by federal legalization.

More broadly, the move by the Toronto Stock Exchange to review its members’ cannabis risk underscores the financial uncertainties that still plague Canadian cannabis despite by federal legalization. Like any emerging new sector, Canadian cannabis is hungry for capital to fund its rapid expansion: the emergence of mega-scale farms and proliferation of new consumer products simply wouldn’t have happened without billions of dollars of investment.

And, clearly, one of the main reasons so much capital has flowed to Canadian companies is that sector enjoys a relatively low level of political risk. Because legalization has been a federal process—with medical cannabis legalized in 2001 and adult-use starting this spring—investors in Canada have much less concern that, say, a grow operation approved by a provincial government will run afoul of federal authorities. That confidence has allowed Canadian cannabis firms to draw on a much wider array of capital sources.

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And, critically, it has also given Canadian companies important advantages over their counterparts in the United States, where federal prohibition continues to scare away most banks and traditional investors from the cannabis business. Instead, American cannabis firms are forced to rely heavily on private “niche” investors, who typically demand a much higher rate of interest in return for the higher risk of a federal crackdown.

Canadian firms, by contrast, can not only get private investment at lower rates. They can also raise capital by going public—issuing shares and listing them on Canada’s three stock exchanges: the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) and the TSX Venture Exchange, both of which are run by the TMX Group, and their rival, the Canadian Securities Exchange. Currently, the 69 publicly traded cannabis firms on Canada’s exchanges have a combined market value of $8 billion CDN.

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The advantages of public finance go beyond access to cheaper capital—publicly traded firms also get a big boost in business credibility.

The advantages of public finance go beyond access to cheaper capital: because “going public” is such a heavily regulated process, with lots of government oversight, publicly traded firms also get a big boost in business credibility. That credibility in turn makes it easier for public companies to attract potential partners to, for example, add new product lines or expand into new markets.

“Everyone in the cannabis business globally knows who [the publically traded companies] are,” says attorney Hugo Alves, an industry veteran who now runs the investment firm Wheaton Cannabis. “And so everybody wants to do business with them.” Case in point: US beverage maker Constellation Brands, maker of beverages such as Corona Beer, has just announced a whopping $245 million investment in Canada’s Canopy Growth.

The Pressure of Going Public

If there is a downside to “going public,” it’s that these companies are now under substantial pressure to keep their investors happy, and their share prices high,by rapidly increasing their revenues and profits. That pressure in turn pushes firms to constantly seek out new ways to boost profits—by adopting the latest cost-saving growing technology, for example, or by expanding into a new product line or consumer market.

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This dynamic has huge benefits for the cannabis industry as a whole, in that it accelerates innovation and growth. But the companies themselves are under constant pressure to find “the ‘next thing,’” says Wheaton’s Alves. “The next iteration of cannabis technology or know-how or products or brands–‘What is out there that I can add value for my shareholders?’”

The accelerating hunt for shareholder value has helped motivate Canadian cannabis firms to expand their presence internationally.

And that search is at the heart of the current tension at the Toronto Stock Exchange. This accelerating hunt for shareholder value has helped motivate Canadian cannabis firms to expand their presence internationally. For example, some companies are working with partners in Germany, which also has a growing medical market.

But the most tempting foreign market, of course, is south of the border, in the United States. The burgeoning US medical and adult-use markets offer Canadian companies, with their access to cheaper financing, the chance to generate higher revenues and profits than are possible at home.

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Further, by partnering with a company in Colorado, Washington, or some other cannabis-friendly state, Canadian firms can gain valuable market experience in consumer products, such as edibles, that generate high profits, but aren’t yet legal at home. By the time those products are legal in Canada—perhaps as early as July 2019—these early-movers “will already be well down the path to having an entire product line,” says one Canadian industry consultant.

But, adds the consultant, given the ever-present of risk that the US federal government will crack down on state-legal cannabis companies and seize their assets—a risk that has jumped measurably with President Donald Trump’s appointment of the old-school drug warrior Jeff Sessions as Attorney General—the strategy of investing south of the border is “a bit of a house of cards.”

Case in point: Because the Canadian cannabis sector is now such a respectable place for investors, it is attracting a lot of foreign capital, including from the United States. Big American investors that were reluctant to put money directly into state-legal cannabis ventures have been piling into Canadian companies. Because some of those Canadian companies are partnering with US operators, US investors may feel they’ve found a way to invest in the US market indirectly, without the risks of doing it directly.

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But that, too, is a strategy that could fail if the Trump administration decides to crack down on state-sanctioned cannabis operations, warns Bruce Linton, CEO of Canopy Growth, which has avoided US investments.

“If you’re sending your money up to Canada and then we take your money and send it back to a place where you couldn’t have made the investment yourself, we’re kind of doing indirectly for you what you couldn’t have directly done yourself,” says Linton. “And that really isn’t going to be a good idea going forward, because I’m pretty sure the current government of America is not looking to make it easier to produce and distribute cannabis than it was under the prior administration.”

Risks & Rewards

What all this means for Canada’s publicly traded cannabis firms—and Canadian cannabis more generally—is still unclear. Canadian security regulations don’t bar Canadian firms from investing in the United States. In fact, in a statement issued the same day as the Toronto Stock Exchange’s announcement, the Canadian Securities Administrators said cannabis-related companies were merely required to fully disclose to investors any potential risk they faced in the United States due to the Trump administration’s more hostile attitude toward state-legal cannabis.

It’s still up the individual stock exchanges to determine how much risk they’re willing to tolerate.

That means it’s still up the individual stock exchanges to determine how much risk they’re willing to tolerate. The TMX Group has given little indication as to how it will determine whether to delist any of its members. Some observers think an outright delisting is unlikely, given how lucrative cannabis has been for the exchange: because cannabis companies’ shares are frequently traded, they generate large commissions for the exchange.

“At the end of the day, the exchange is a business,” says Wheaton Cannabis’s Alves. “And they don’t want to lose a significant active issuer.” In fact, rival Canadian Securities Exchange has offered to list any firms that TMX delists.

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In other words, one could say that the sky is not yet falling on publicly traded Canadian cannabis. And, indeed, two weeks after the initial crash, share prices for Canadian cannabis firms were starting to recover.

Yet some Canadian cannabis companies remain skeptical of the American market.  Canopy Growth’s Linton, for example, readily admits that he could be making a lot more money if were willing to absorb the political risk of operating south of the border. But until America’s federal prohibition ends, he says, the risk posed by a potential crackdown—or even some impolite attention by America’s most famous Tweeter—outweighs the potential short-term gain. As Linton wryly notes, “I’m not sure I want to be on the wrong side of those 140 characters.”

And so far, the market hasn’t punished Linton’s cautious approach. Canopy Growth’s stock, which took a major hit after the TMX announcement two weeks ago, is now trading at an all-time high.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

‘Corona, Lime, & Cannabis, Please’: Big Brewer Enters Marijuana Biz

Constellation Brands, one of the United States’ largest alcohol distributors, has taken a 9.9% stake in the Canadian cannabis firm Canopy Growth, according to a report by Jennifer Maloney and David George-Cosh in the Wall Street Journal. Canopy and Constellation say they plan to develop cannabis-infused beverages for the legal adult market.

Constellation Brands just became the first big brewer to enter the cannabis space.

It’s a move that’s been long anticipated in the cannabis industry. For years, a number of brewers, vintners, distillers, and distributors have sniffed around the cannabis industry, considering legal marijuana both as an investment opportunity and a potential marketplace rival. But none had actually broken through and invested–until now.

Constellation Brands, based in Victor, NY, may be best known as the American distributor of Corona beer. The company’s portfolio of alcohol brands includes Svedka vodka, Charles Smith and Robert Mondavi wines, and Casa Noble tequila.

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US$ 191 Million Buy-In

The company’s investment in Canopy Growth amounts to C$245 million (US$191 million). Canopy Growth is based in Smith Falls, Ontario, about 45 miles south of Ottawa. Formerly known as Tweed Inc., Canopy is one of Canada’s leading licensed producers of medical cannabis, and is the world’s largest publicly traded cannabis company, with a Toronto Stock Exchange market valuation of C$2.2 billion (US$171 billion).

‘We’re obviously trying to get first-mover advantage.’

Rob Sands, CEO, Constellation Brands

The Journal reported that Constellation plans to work with Canopy Growth to develop cannabis-infused beverages, in anticipation of Canada’s adult-use legalization expected by July 2018.

The Journal also reported that Constellation had been seeking a toehold in the cannabis industry not just for the Canadian market, but in anticipation of wider legalization in the United States. From the Journal report:   

“We think that it’s highly likely, given what’s happened at the state level,” Rob Sands, chief executive of the Victor, N.Y.-based beer, wine and spirits company, said in an interview. “We’re obviously trying to get first-mover advantage.”

Constellation–flush with cash after posting a 13% increase in beer sales in its latest quarter-is interested in developing drinkable cannabis products that don’t contain alcohol, he said. Products currently on the market in U.S. states where they are legal include buzz-inducing sodas, coffees and fruit elixirs.

Constellation doesn’t plan to sell such a product in the U.S. before marijuana is legalized there nationwide, Mr. Sands said, but could sell it in Canada, where edible and drinkable cannabis products are expected to be legalized by 2019, or other countries where recreational marijuana is permitted.

A Busy Autumn for Canopy Growth

The Constellation investment represents Canopy Growth’s second splashy deal in as many months. In September, the company announced that it had entered into a partnership with the Spanish pharmaceutical giant Alcaliber, S.A.

Last month, Canopy made a controversial deal with Alcaliber SA, Spain’s opium-producing pharma giant.

Alcaliber has been granted a license to cultivate, produce, manufacture, export/import, and commercialize cannabis for medical and scientific purposes by the Spanish Agency of Medicinal Products and Medical Devices.  As part of the agreement, Canopy Growth will supply Alcaliber with certain strains and seeds to grow at the company’s facilities in Spain. That deal was seen as controversial in parts of the cannabis industry, as it represented the first collaboration between a pure cannabis company and an established pharmaceutical player–and one of the world’s largest producers of opium products. 

“Entering this agreement with a large, well-recognized European partner like Alcaliber, with a proven background in controlled substances and an ability to produce plant-based medication solidifies our commitment to diversified production capabilities not just in Canada, but also new and emerging cannabis markets,” Bruce Linton, Chairman & CEO of Canopy Growth, said at the time of the Alcaliber deal last month. “This agreement gives us additional resources to aggressively enter the European market where federally permitted by law, while we continue to work to establish our own complementary production footprint for cannabis cultivation, value-add oil extraction and Softgel production in the European Union.”

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‘Not The Time To Be Profitable’

Leafly investment columnist Alan Brochstein reported (on his New Cannabis Ventures website) that Canopy Growth recently posted an all-time closing high of C$13.78 on October 11th, and closed Friday at C$12.79. 

Canopy Growth CEO Linton recently spoke about the company’s current strategy, during the New West Summit conference in Oakland. “Canopy Growth is now in six provinces and six country,” he said. The company is not yet profitable, “but we don’t want to be.”

“Now is not the time to be” profitable, Linton said, adding that he’s focused on expanding into rapidly opening markets like the European Union, as well as Canada’s coming recreational market.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Which Universities in Canada Consume the Most Cannabis?

It’s no secret that many dabble in cannabis during their college years—but just how prevalent is cannabis use in universities today? Canada’s Maclean’s magazine asked that question as part of its annual student survey and this week published the results. They reveal not only how often Canadian university students consume, but also which students—by school or subject—consume most.

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Nearly two-thirds, or 63%, of the more 22,000 college students who responded to the survey have never consumed cannabis, while 2% of the respondents identified themselves as daily consumers. All the responses were self-reported.

Among the schools surveyed, Bishop’s University in Quebec was the top cannabis-consuming school in Canada. According to Maclean’s, 60% of students surveyed there said they have consumed cannabis before.

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Coming in second was St. Francis Xavier University, with 56% of students saying they consume cannabis. Acadia University was third, with 53% of students saying they have tried cannabis. Both schools are located in Nova Scotia.

Leading the nation’s universities in terms of daily consumers: Acadia University, at 8%, or nearly four times the national average.

School Less than once a year Less than once a month About once a month A few times a month A few ties a week Daily Overall
Bishop’s University 14% 15% 7% 12% 6% 6% 60%
St. Francis Xavier University 10% 13% 8% 13% 10% 2% 56%
Acadia University 12% 13% 4% 11% 5% 8% 53%
Dalhousie University 13% 13% 8% 7% 4% 5% 50%
University of Victoria 12% 15% 7% 9% 5% 2% 49%
Queen’s University 13% 13% 8% 8% 5% 1% 48%
McGill University 12% 14% 7% 10% 3% 3% 47%
Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) 19% 9% 5% 6% 4% 3% 45%
Concordia University (Montreal) 13% 11% 6% 6% 6% 4% 45%
University of New Brunswick 11% 15% 6% 6% 6% 1% 45%
Mount Allison University 13% 12% 3% 8% 5% 3% 44%
Carleton University 12% 11% 6% 6% 5% 2% 43%
St. Thomas University 13% 10% 3% 7% 5% 4% 42%
University of Guelph 11% 11% 7% 4% 4% 3% 41%
Wilfrid Laurier University 11% 10% 3% 8% 6% 3% 41%
Trent University 12% 12% 3% 5% 5% 4% 41%
Western University 10% 13% 5% 6% 5% 2% 41%
University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI) 12% 10% 7% 4% 5% 0% 39%
Nipissing University 13% 7% 7% 6% 2% 3% 39%
Lakehead University 14% 9% 4% 5% 2% 5% 39%
University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) 15% 7% 1% 8% 6% 2% 38%
Brock University 13% 11% 3% 6% 3% 2% 38%
Saint Mary’s University 10% 15% 1% 6% 3% 2% 37%
Memorial University of Newfoundland 11% 12% 2% 7% 2% 3% 36%
The University of British Columbia (UBC) 9% 13% 5% 5% 2% 2% 36%
The University of Winnipeg 10% 9% 2% 2% 5% 7% 35%
McMaster University 11% 12% 3% 6% 2% 1% 35%
Mount Saint Vincent University 8% 8% 1% 7% 5% 6% 35%
Laurentian University 11% 10% 3% 7% 1% 2% 34%
Université de Sherbrooke 12% 12% 4% 4% 1% 1% 34%
University of Lethbridge 10% 10% 3% 5% 2% 4% 34%
Université de Montréal 11% 12% 1% 7% 0% 3% 34%
Université Laval 16% 10% 3% 4% 2% 1% 34%
Ryerson University 9% 10% 5% 3% 2% 3% 33%
Cape Breton University 8% 10% 8% 2% 2% 2% 33%
University of Ottawa 9% 10% 3% 5% 3% 3% 33%
University of Waterloo 9% 9% 4% 5% 3% 2% 32%
University of Saskatchewan 12% 9% 3% 3% 3% 3% 32%
Université de Moncton 11% 8% 3% 3% 3% 1% 29%
University of Alberta 10% 10% 3% 3% 2% 1% 29%
University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) 10% 8% 2% 4% 3% 1% 29%
York University 7% 11% 3% 3% 3% 1% 29%
Brandon University 9% 8% 4% 2% 4% 2% 28%
University of Windsor 13% 4% 2% 4% 2% 3% 28%
University of Toronto 10% 7% 4% 4% 2% 1% 28%
University of Calgary 12% 7% 3% 2% 1% 1% 27%
University of Regina 12% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 27%
University of Manitoba 8% 7% 2% 2% 2% 2% 24%
Simon Fraser University 10% 7% 2% 3% 2% 1% 24%

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The Maclean’s survey also organized the use data by what programs students were studying. The top three disciplines in which students had ever in their lifetimes consumed cannabis were philosophy, environmental science, and economics.

Program Percentage
Philosophy 57%
Environmental science 56%
Economics 55%
International relations 53%
Sociology 52%
Political science 51%
Design 51%
Journalism 50%
Art 49%
Business 47%
Architecture 45%
Psychology 45%
English 44%
Engineering 44%
Criminology 44%
Agriculture 43%
History 42%
Law 42%
Computer Science 42%
Neuroscience 42%
Anthropology 42%
Medicine 42%
Chemistry 41%
Kinesiology 40%
Music 40%
Animal Science 40%
Math 38%
Pharmacy 38%
Education 36%
Linguistics 29%

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Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

The Canadian Securities Exchange Welcomes North America’s Cannabis Sector

It’s 4:20 pm on a crisp October afternoon in downtown Toronto, and a crew of cannabis professionals are getting down to serious business at the Canadian Security Exchange’s ‘Cannabis Growing in Capital Markets’ speaker series.

Investors, lawyers, accountants, and entrepreneurs mingled together in a mission to help see the cannabis sector grow. The complimentary wine and spirits helped lighten the mood, a much-needed respite from the tense moment the Canadian cannabis industry faces.

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Less than a week before the event, the Toronto Stock Exchange, a direct competitor of the CSE, announced it would be reviewing cannabis companies listed on its exchanges that also have assets or activities in the United States, indicating that these companies may face possible de-listing. That stands in stark contrast to the route the CSE is taking, allowing those companies on their exchange if they make certain disclosure statements about their US operations.

Against this backdrop, Richard Carleton, the CEO of the Canadian Securities Exchange, welcomed the crowd by giving a summary of the positions being taken on the matter, euphemistically referring to the Toronto Stock Exchange as “the people across the street from us.”

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The Canadian Securities Administrators, which oversee the country’s capital markets, had recently released a notice indicating that companies with US operations must make certain disclosures. That, Carleton told the crowd, was in lockstep with the position that the CSE has taken, and they are fully supportive of the CSE’s directive.

In her talk, Kimberley McManus gave the 411 on intellectual property in the cannabis sector. Patents are becoming increasingly important in the sector, McManus said, showing the audience drawings contained in a patent filed for a bong.

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But perhaps the most interesting part of the session was a fireside chat with the heads of five CSE-listed companies, which brought questions from the audience. “What do you think of Ontario’s plan to make cannabis distribution controlled by the LCBO?” asked one attendee. Some said it didn’t seem ideal, while CannTrust President Brad Rogers told the crowd “we’ll work with it.”

One awkward moment came when an audience member asked the five heads point-blank whether any of their companies had women on the board. Silence.

But besides that little hiccup, the event appeared to be a success. Afterwards, I had the opportunity to speak with Rob Cook, the Senior VP of Market Development of the Canadian Securities Exchange.

Cook told me that this isn’t the CSE’s first dance with cannabis companies, pointing out that many are already listed on his exchange.

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When I asked about the ultimate goal of the days event, Cook said, “Today, we held a seminar aimed at helping educate the market and we featured five of our listed companies, and had a number of speakers with expertise in various aspects of cannabis companies trading in the capital markets. The goal was to help people become more comfortable with the cannabis sector, to learn more about it, because there’s a lot of things pertaining to it that are unique to the sector and do effect the investment characteristics of the companies.”

With more cannabis-related speaker events slated in the future, it seems the CSE is not turning its back on cannabis companies. If these events show anything, it’s that investors are hungry, and the CSE is positioning itself to be the exchange that welcomes cannabis-based companies from across North America.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

New Brunswick’s Cannabis Stores To Be Run by Provincial Liquor Board

New Brunswick is handing over full control of cannabis distribution to its liquor board, following a similar model as Ontario.

The province announced on Wednesday that a subsidiary of NB Liquor would oversee the stand-alone retail storefronts, which will reportedly be in place in time for next July’s legalization.

There will be 20 stores in 15 communities, along with an online retailer.

Overall, there will be 20 stores in 15 communities, along with an online retailer. CBC reports that details for online sales have yet to be worked out, but possible options include online ordering with in-store pickup and a delivery service run by trained staff who check ID upon arrival.

The retail spaces will be required to follow strict guidelines, which stipulate staid exteriors with no window displays or advertising, carding customers before they enter the stores, keeping products under glass, and being located at least 300 metres away from schools.

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The eastern province has yet to announce legal age of purchase or the price point for recreational marijuana. Global News reports that a legislative committee recently suggested 19 as the minimum age of purchase, which is the same as liquor and tobacco in the province.

Guidelines stipulate stores must have staid exteriors with no window displays or advertising.

In September, New Brunswick announced it was launching a Crown corporation to oversee the sales of recreational cannabis. It has already signed multi-million-dollar agreements with licensed producers Organigram in Moncton and Canopy Growth of Smith Falls, Ont. as its official suppliers. CBC reports that combined, they will sell at least nine million grams a year to NB alone.

At a news conference on Wednesday, New Brunswick’s finance minister Cathy Rogers said that while consulting with other regions like Colorado and Washington, where recreational marijuana is legal, New Brunswick officials were advised to give the province control over sales as a starting point.

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“Their advice was to start with tight government oversight in the beginning,” she said. “We want to ensure that cannabis stays out of the hands of youth and criminals.”

NB Liquor chief executive officer Brian Harriman said the stores should be able to deter illegal dealers and in turn, keep the product out of the hands of minors.

‘With a regulated controlled market, the size of the illicit market is going to shrink.’

Brian Harriman, NB Liquor chief executive officer

“With a regulated controlled market, the size of the illicit market is going to shrink,” said Harriman. “It’ll never be airtight but we think we can absolutely tighten it up.”

Jaime Agnew, president of Local 963 of the Canadian Union of Public Employees, which represents 500 NB Liquor employees, told the CBC he supports the decision since it will spike the number of unionized jobs: “I think the new workers of Cannabis New Brunswick, or whatever it’s going to be called, will enjoy our contract and will enjoy the benefits of getting out of the illegal trade and getting into the legal trade, and having a good-paying job with good benefits and all the things that come with being unionized.”

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Like Ontario’s model, New Brunswick’s non-medicinal dispensaries will still be considered illegal come July and subject to enforcement by local police.

So far, Ontario and New Brunswick are the only provinces that have outlined plans for sales of recreational marijuana. NB Liquor’s request for proposals calls for retail stores to be “substantially complete” one month before legalization on July 1.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Comedy, Cancer, and Cannabis: Alan Park’s Wild Ride

By all accounts, things were going well for Alan Park in the mid-2000s. The comedian was becoming a household name in Canada, appearing as a regular cast member on the CBC’s weekly sketch comedy show Royal Canadian Air Farce.

The primetime cable show, which kept tabs on the minutiae of the country’s political and cultural inner workings, saw Park become the regular face of many of the show’s political impersonations, from former Iranian leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to the United States’ Donald Rumsfeld, and even Barack Obama. The show ran weekly until 2008, and carries on through annual new year’s specials. Park would continue working with Air Farce for these specials, although soon, to the dismay of his fans, it appeared as if Park had dropped into near oblivion.

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But as he reveals in Green Crush with Alan Park, the weekly podcast he launched earlier this year, the comedian got some not-so-good news that saw him indefinitely sidelined from the comedy acting and writing gigs he loved dearly.

That news? “I had stage-four cancer,” Park tells his listeners on an episode of Green Crush.

He says he had then been told—two different times—that he was on a “guaranteed deathbed.” It wasn’t a question id he would die, but when.

Park’s acerbic wit underscores a fearless attitude perfectly suited to someone who’s twice beat stage-four cancer.

Now, with the cancer diagnosis a few years behind him, Park says he’s “living proof” that cannabis be used as a treatment tool in the fight against cancer, having fought an “astronomical” prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value of over 700 down to less than two, lower than the normal upper limit of four.

In a video filmed by Canadian cannabis activist Russell Barth that now has more than 10,000 views on YouTube, Park says taking increasing doses of concentrated Rick Simpson Oil helped cure the cancer that, as he recently put on his show, was “irreversible, aggressive, advanced, terminal cancer that had already metastasized into most of my skeleton.”

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In Green Crush, the comedian-turned-podcaster hopes to use his broadcast platform to not only talk about the benefits cannabis can have in cancer treatment, but also to attack “myths” about cannabis he says are being spread by the government.

On Green Crush, the comedian-turned-podcaster talks about cannabis’ cancer-fighting benefits and attacks cannabis myths spread by the government.

Among the show’s segments is the aptly-named What About The Children?, in which Park shines a light on what he says are phony arguments that cannabis needs to stay illegal because of the effects it might have on youth.

“What about the children of the people who have been sentenced to die?” he says during one such segment, flipping the script on prohibitionists while alluding that cancer patients could use cannabis. “Children who then get to see their dad deteriorate. What about those children?”

Where Royal Canadian Air Farce mocked the little details of Canada’s political goings, Park does the same with Canada’s legalization plan and the ballooning costs that law enforcement officials they say they’ll face.

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A frequent target of Park’s is Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne, especially since her ministers announced that the province would restrict all forthcoming sales of recreational cannabis to 150 government-run stores and one government-run website.

“It’s nothing more than an extension of the tribal control that’s been on top of our society from the beginning of time,” Park said during one episode. “They don’t want other people getting in the way and saying ‘Hey – it could be like this! We might be able to consider these possibilities.’ No. They’re just putting up a bogus, full-of-shit wall of nonsense defense and a lot of people are chilling out and taking it easy on and not fighting hard enough.”

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You can tell Park has been through some stuff. His voice sounds much more gruff than it had on Air Farce, and the acerbic wit he now employs underscores a give-no-fucks attitude that only someone who twice beat stage-four cancer could have. “I really didn’t think I’d be talking about these things like this three or four years ago,” he told his podcast listeners. “I was lying on a couch wondering if I could get upstairs to go to the bathroom, now I feel like I just want to tear the walls down.”

The whole angle Park brings to the show is one of a conspiracy-theorist radio host.

The whole angle Park brings to the show is one of a conspiracy-theorist radio host. And that’s probably because Park comes fresh off hosting the podcast “Conspiracy Queries: With Alan Park,” in which he “questioned the official story, attempta to reveal the conspiracy, and uncovera how and why we are being lied to.”

Now, Park is doing that with cannabis, becoming a sort of Canadian-marijuana Alex Jones (without the fascist sympathies and food-supplement hucksterism). There’s no stopping Alan Park—on every episode of Green Crush he cites some of the science behind the notion that cannabis may treat cancer. And now the man won’t stop until he’s shared that message with everyone.

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After hours of listening to the podcast, I reached out to the man himself, with a handful of questions I hadn’t heard him address on Green Crush.

Pressed to identify his biggest hope for Canada’s impending cannabis legalization, he tells me, “My best hope for the impending legislation would be for the general public to be aware that the inherent architectural structure of this legalization is so heavily flawed on so many points.”

What about his biggest fear? “That no one will care and that they will get away with it.”

Finally, does he miss doing political impersonation on TV? “Yeah a little bit,” he tells me. “I wanted to do a Joel Osteen gig a while ago when he wasn’t letting Hurricane Harvey victims into his church. I thought I’d have a good time with that. It’s not a burning desire, but now I’m incorporating voice work into my show.”

Listen to Green Crush with Alan Park here.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Ontario Tussles Over Grow-Ops on ‘Agricultural Land’

Liberal MPP for Hamilton Ted McMeekin is looking into restricting where medicinal cannabis growers will be able to set up greenhouses when the product is grown in mass quantities.

McMeekin, who is the former provincial agricultural minister of Ontario, told the Hamilton Spectator that industrial-sized greenhouses should stay away from land that’s fit for cultivation. “You shouldn’t be building greenhouses on class 1 agriculture land,” McMeekin told the paper. “You should do it on class 3 or 4 land where you can’t grow anything.”

‘To treat (cannabis) as something separate from agriculture is extremely problematic. You can’t allow some greenhouses to be built and others not simply because of the product that’s grown inside.’

Lesley Campbell, professor and biologist

Only one per cent of Canadian farmland is rated class 1, which is defined as the most fertile agricultural land available. McMeekin suggests licensed growers look to northern Ontario to set up production, since the region could benefit from jobs and economic growth the new developments would inevitably create.

Hamilton City Councillor Lloyd Ferguson also wants city planning staff to consider a limit on grow-ops in rural areas, and create stricter regulations. “[Cannabis companies] are not respecting [the planning guidelines],” Ferguson told the Spectator. “They are coming in with applications up to 75 acres, 200 acres. This is a ballooning issue.”

Hamilton’s plan is to limit cannabis grow-ops to 2000 square metres. McMeekin says the city’s planning department has collected proposals for “concrete bunkers” to house the grow-ops. “I can’t see the province supporting carving up the Greenbelt with bunker buildings,” he told the paper, referring to the region of agricultural land in Southern Ontario that is protected by the provincial government.

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Lesley Campbell is an associate professor at Ryerson who studies the evolutionary biology of cannabis. She calls McMeekin’s proposal “problematic” and believes Ontario’s landscape won’t drastically change if industrial medicinal cannabis facilities are granted permission to develop on farmland.

Hamilton is already home to industrial-sized greenhouses that occupy prime farmland and grows everything from cucumbers to chrysanthemum.

“Regardless of which plant we’re using, this is farming, after all,” she says, noting that the Hamilton area is well known for its horticulture—the region is already home to industrial-sized greenhouses that occupy prime farmland and grows everything from cucumbers to chrysanthemum.

“The idea that we should be limiting what a farmer can do with his space is very problematic, in the sense that it’s limiting what his potential income can be,” Campbell says.

She also takes issue with the suggestion that greenhouses can reduce the productivity of land, noting that an agricultural greenhouse can be converted into facilities for different crops, since they provide the ability to produce year-round.

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“It’s not as if the medical marijuana greenhouse is limited to producing cannabis,” she says. “It can be used for tomatoes or cucumbers. So if there’s ever a time when we lose the need to produce cannabis at this scale, this can easily be converted for another purpose.”

Tweed Farms’s facilities in Niagara-on-the-Lake are one example of that. The company converted a former pepper and eggplant greenhouse into a commercial medical cannabis operation.

Suggesting producers move north to set up their facilities on class-3 land is an expensive option, Campbell says, “essentially making it financially impossible to grow marijuana.” Housing the facilities in urban areas isn’t a viable option either, since Canadian cities aren’t allowed to have a physical structure containing cannabis within 150 metres or residential and institutional zones.

Suggesting producers move north to set up facilities on class-3 land ‘essentially (makes) it financially impossible to grow marijuana,’ says Campbell.

Campbell, who’s a Hamilton resident, believes McMeekin’s proposal would ignore cannabis as an agricultural product.

“Yes, it is a health product and something that needs to be regulated,” she says. “[But] to treat it as something that is separate from agriculture is extremely problematic. You can’t allow some greenhouses to be built and others not simply because of the product that’s grown inside.”

Bill Panagiotakopoulos is the Chief Operational Officer with Beleave.com, a licensed producer based in Hamilton. He’s currently in the process of applying for an 80,000 square foot expansion. He says if McMeekin’s proposal passes, it will cost the city about $12 million worth of investment from his company alone, along with more than 80 jobs. He likens the MPP’s quotes in the Hamilton Spectator article to “reefer madness” that “isolates marijuana like it’s this big bad thing.”

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“For about five years we’ve been working on this plan (with city officials) and no one had ever suggested that it was going to be an issue, certainly nothing like this,” he says. Both Campbell and Panagiotakopoulos are baffled that McMeekin was quoted as saying “sometimes I wish we had left it alone” when talking about the lead up to legalization in the country.

“He’s suggesting that the government do nothing with a $10 billion illegal trade, as it stands right now,” he says. “I think that’s ludicrous. I don’t think elected officials should be making those comments.”

Campbell would like to see a spike in dialogue between politicians and scientists, so there’s more fact-finding in the making of policy. “The more fact-based work, the better, because ultimately that’s what’s going to help us make rational decisions,” she says.

McMeekin could not be reached for comment.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

‘No Significant Issues’ With Legalization, Says Colorado Health Official

On Monday morning, CBC radio host Matt Rainnie interviewed Dr. Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer for the Colorado Department of Public Health, for Rainnie’s daily Prince Edward Island show “Island Morning.”

Like all Canadian provinces, PEI is working to establish its own rules for the sale and consumption of cannabis, which is expected to operate under full federal legality by the summer of 2018. Provincial officials have discussed the possibility of province-run retail shops, as Ontario is doing, but have yet to take decisive action on the question.

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Like many Canadians, Rainnie’s “Island Morning” listeners have a lot of questions and fears about legalization. Wolk, who has been Colorado’s Chief Medical Officer throughout the state’s three-year adult-use era, was happy to answer questions and clear up myths about Colorado’s experience.

Here at Leafly, we found Wolk’s interview to uncommonly rational, calm, clear-headed, and evidence-based. So we transcribed it, edited it lightly for grammatical clarity, and present it here in order to spread his observations and experience.

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CBC: What have you seen since recreational cannabis has been legal in Colorado?
Dr. Larry Wolk: “The short answer is we have not seen much. We have not experienced any significant issue as a result of legalization. I think a lot of people think when you legalize you are going from zero to some high-use number, but they forget that even when marijuana is not legal, one in four adults and one in five kids are probably using on a somewhat regular basis. What we’ve found since legalization is that those numbers haven’t really changed.”

What was your concern heading into recreational cannabis legalization?
“I think the concern was that by legalizing marijuana, we should certainly see an increase in adult use, and maybe that would leak into our youth. [There was also a concern that] youth would somehow gain greater access, and/or feel entitled to go ahead and use in greater numbers.

Going in, ‘there was a concern’ about increased underage use. ‘We haven’t seen that pan out.’

Larry Wolk, Chief Medical Officer, Colorado Dept. of Public Health

“We just haven’t seen that pan out. We have seen a little bit more calls to the poison control center, but maybe parents of children are a little bit more forthcoming—now that it’s legalized—to make those calls.

“More people are going to the emergency room for marijuana visits, but most of those people are actually from out-of-state. They are tourists coming to ski, or coming to take advantage of all that Colorado has to offer. I say ‘all’ now because we have certainly seen an increase in tourists who partake and end up in the emergency room, or end up hospitalized, because they’re not as familiar with the products or education programs that we have around the state, which warn people and educate people about those products.”

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The legal age in Colorado is 21, right?
“It is 21 for the retail, or the recreational marijuana. It is 18 for the medical program, which we have had for about 15 years now.”

What is the right age to legally consume cannabis? Is it 21?
“That is an interesting question. I have talked to different people in different Canadian provinces about that, because I think biologically the correct age should be 25. But practically speaking, we know a lot of young adults are already using marijuana. If we want to capture that use, for a lot of reasons, we can do surveillance, we can do education, even capture the tax revenue and go ahead and have those programs in place for enforcement, then practically speaking 21 is the appropriate age. I think 19 maybe could be a little too young because of developing-brain issues, but if that is the legal drinking age, and you already have a high prevalence—I don’t know your prevalence here, but it may make sense to align it with the drinking age.”

What do you think about selling cannabis in liquor stores?
“I think it is a bad idea, because the co-use of marijuana and liquor is a bad idea. Marijuana in itself [can cause impairment.] Alcohol in itself can cause impairment. [When they’re consumed together] those effects are just not additive; they are exponentially increased when somebody chooses to co-use both substances. Selling both from the same establishment…is just not something we would support.” 

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What about drugged driving?
“We have actually seen an overall decrease in DUI’s since legalization. So, the short answer is: There has been no increase since the legalization of marijuana here. We have seen an increase in marijuana-positive blood tests amongst drivers involved in fatal car accidents. But, blood test is not a good moniker for impairment. We can’t tell if those drivers were impaired. They could have used marijuana a month ago and those metabolites could be still showing up in their blood stream. The other thing is, it is easier to test for alcohol in a roadside test. Many police officers will tell you their protocol is to test for alcohol first, and if they are positive for alcohol, they stop testing at that point. So it is hard to get a sense for how much marijuana is impacting DUI’s.”

How difficult is cannabis enforcement?
“In Colorado, we do not allow public consumption. Yet you will go to places or be in particular areas in the state and you will know it is being consumed publicly. Which makes it that much more difficult if someone is consuming an edible or a vapor product, because it makes it much less easy to detect.

I think law enforcement has a tough job. On the one had there is some relief they don’t have to bring people in, or charge folks with misdemeanors as the result of using marijuana. On the other side there is some angst over people maybe taking advantage of the system here.

This is one of the ways I think Canada will have the advantage over the United States. We are doing it state by state, so we have a grey area problem. People can grow marijuana legally, and then move it out the back door—take it and sell it in states where it is not legal.

If we had a national legalization similar to what Canada is doing, it would make the black or grey market far less active, [because there would no longer be such high] demand in neighboring states.”

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How important is education about cannabis?
“Very important. We have some pretty strong numbers showing that people recognize the statewide campaigns that we have developed. With that then, maybe there is a [growing] recognition among adults about how to follow the laws, and how to store it safely to keep it away from kids.

It appears that teenagers make decisions to consume marijuana for reasons other than legalization—like they do with other risk behaviors. [In Colorado], we had a statewide campaign targeted at teens. They don’t want to hear about it affecting their developing brains. They don’t want to hear about how it impacts what’s next. So, the campaign is all about how using marijuana may impact your ability to graduate high school, impact getting your driver’s license, [make it more difficult to] maintain a relationship or get a job. The numbers look very good in terms of the impact of the campaign.

For adults, we have a much lighter campaign than we started with. One of the mistakes we made early on is, we tried to use a campaign with life-size lab rat cages, saying ‘Don’t be a lab rat.’ That portrayed jail cages, and we ended up alienating the population we were trying to educate and help. So we had to completely scrap that idea and work on something that was more appealing, something likely users would listen to rather than immediately shut off.”

Do we know if cannabis legalization is leading to higher uses of hard drugs?
“We are not seeing those kinds of increases. We are certainly seeing an increase in heroin-related deaths, but those are similar to the national increases, so [our heroin-related death rate] is not out of line with the national rate of increase. I think we have yet to answer the question of whether or not legalizing marijuana helps reduce the consumption of those harder, more addictive drugs, or acts as a gateway. The jury is still out.”

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Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.