Tag: general hydroponics

In Photos: Take a Trip Inside a Modern Hydroponics Facility

Indoor cannabis cultivation has moved out of the dimly-lit basements and garages operated by renegade activists, patients, and green thumbs. Nowadays, massive legal grows occupy sprawling warehouses and multi-million dollar agricultural facilities. As budgets and plant counts scale up, so do the technology and sophistication of these gardens.

To share a view of what the modern hydroponics facility looks like, Leafly visited Caliva, a premier cannabis dispensary and cultivation center in San Jose, California.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

What Is a Feed Chart and How Can It Improve Your Cannabis Garden?

A helpful tool used by diligent cannabis cultivators is a feed chart. Feed charts are specific recommendations and guidelines provided by nutrient companies to help farmers achieve the healthiest and best crop possible. How and when a nutrient is introduced will trigger responses from the plant, and feed charts can help you understand what products you need to use and when they should be applied. This knowledge is particularly important in hydroponic gardens where you have complete control over nutrients.

Cannabis can be fed varying amounts of nutrient concentrations depending on the strain, stage of growth, and environment; introducing too many or too few nutrients to a cannabis plant can cause great harm to your garden. This is where feed charts come in handy. They provide specific instructions indicating when and where nutrient products should be applied.

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It’s important to note that different plants have unique nutritional needs during each phase of the growing cycle. Feed charts can provide an excellent foundation for novice growers, but as your skills develop, you may find it necessary to adjust feed charts based on your plant’s specific needs. In time, you’ll be able to create customized charts that take into consideration strain attributes, climate, water quality, and other factors. Remember, horticulture is a form of art, and practice makes perfect.

Reading Feed Charts for Cannabis Gardens

Although the concept of a feed chart might sound simple, you’ll first need to learn how to read one. Generally speaking, a feed chart is broken down into a grid. One axis lists nutrients while the other axis provides timeline information. For example, a hydroponic feed chart may be broken down in a week-by-week format, with different nutrients assigned to different weeks.

Example feed chart from General HydroponicsClick to view a PDF version of this sample feed chart

Most feed charts provide a ratio of nutrients per gallon of solution. Let’s say week one calls for 2.5mL of a nutrient—you would simply add 2.5mL of that nutrient per gallon into your solution. If you’re making 50 gallons of solution, multiply 2.5 by 50 and you’ll find that you need 250mL total in your 50 gallon tank.

Once you have mixed the nutrients into your solution, use a PPM (parts per million) reader to ensure the nutrient solution isn’t stronger than the chart advises. Additionally, feed charts may instruct you to add specific nutrients prior to other nutrients.

How to Adjust a Feed Chart

Feed charts provide loose instructions on how to effectively feed your cannabis, but they can always be adjusted to better suit the specific needs of your garden. To adjust a feed chart, first familiarize yourself with the suggested chart and know how your plants respond after these recommended feedings. Understanding a plant’s response to any given nutrient will help you predict how it will be affected when you increase or decrease that nutrient.

The key to successfully adjusting a feed chart is to record everything using a daily journal. Write down what the plants are being fed and when, as well as how the plants responded to the nutrients. By doing this, you can start identifying trends. For example, you might notice that you aren’t increasing vegetative nutrients fast enough to keep up with the size of your plants, or that bud growth is lacking in specific weeks. Having observed this through your notes, you’ll know to increase your nutrient solution at a slow pace.

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Diagnosing Cannabis Nutrient Deficiencies in Sick Plants

When adjusting a feed chart, be aware of nutrient lockout and how it compares to nutrient deficiency. A lockout will occur when there is a buildup of nutrients in the grow medium, which then prohibits your plants from uptaking nutrients. This is the opposite of a nutrient deficiency, but they end up looking the same since, in both cases, the plant is not receiving its nutrients. However, by keeping track of your feedings, you should easily be able to tell if you have been underfeeding or overfeeding your plants.

Common Questions About Feed Charts

Below are some frequently asked questions about feed charts. Knowing the answers will help you successfully keep and maintain a feed chart of your own.

What’s the Difference Between Simple and Expert Charts?

The difference between simple and expert charts is based on the number of nutrients used. Simple charts will supply your garden with everything it needs to thrive, but expert charts will introduce a longer list of nutrients to improve your garden. The additional nutrients may increase the plant’s yield, enhance aroma, and flavor, and/or lend an extra boost to its growth and immune system.

Botanicare sample standard simple feed chartClick to view a PDF version of this sample standard/basic feed chart, as well as an example of an expert feed chart for comparison

What Are Drain-to-Waste and Recirculating Systems?

Drain-to-waste systems use nutrient solutions only once, whereas a recirculating system will recycle the runoff. Both of these systems have upsides and downsides.

The advantages of a drain-to-waste system include:

  • Nutrients are more fresh and consistent
  • The pH stays stable
  • Undesirable pathogens are less likely to spread between plants

On the other hand, a drain-to-waste system wastes nutrients that are left in the runoff.

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Recirculating systems are more economical as they maximize nutrients. However, there are some issues associated with recirculated nutrients:

  • The pH and nutrient levels of your solution can change as old nutrients are recirculated into your feeding tank
  • Recirculating your solution may allow unwanted pathogens to be spread between plants

Why Do Numbers on the Bottle Differ From the Chart?

Numbers differ between feed charts and bottles because a feed chart plans for the combination of multiple nutrients, while the bottle accounts only for the use of a single nutrient in isolation. Using only the recommendations on each nutrient bottle, you may find yourself with a solution that is too strong for your plants to handle.

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What Does PPM Mean?

PPM (parts per million) is a measurement that is used to identify the density of a nutrient solution. Using a PPM reader allows you to accurately measure the nutrients going into your garden, information that is vitally important when addressing nutrient lockout or deficiency.

Why Are pH Levels Important?

If the pH level is too high or too low, your plants cannot uptake the nutrients they need to thrive. Keeping a pH between 5.5 and 6.5 for hydroponic grows–or 6.0 and 6.8 for soil gardens–is absolutely necessary for your plants to reach their full potential.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Critical Kush Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Produced by Barney’s Farm, Critical Kush was bred by crossing Critical Mass with OG Kush. Known for its spicy, earthy flavor and overwhelming yield, this strain remains popular among growers and consumers alike.

Grow Techniques: Provide plenty of space for these plants when you grow them. Prune aggressively and trellis the branches so that the buds have room to fill in. Maintain low humidity while flowering and keep airflow up to prevent bud rot. Grow either hydroponically or in soil and keep the buds out of the rain if growing outside. Critical Kush is a great option for growing in greenhouses if you’re looking for a large harvest.

Flowering Time: 8 weeks 

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Moderate

Climate: Prefers a temperate to hot climate between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Suitable for either indoor or outdoor gardens. Works well in greenhouses where humidity can be managed effectively.

Feeding: Feed heavily while flowering to keep the buds swelling. If using liquid nutrients, also top dress the soil to allow the plants to take in a diversity of flowering nutrients at their desired rate.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Sensi Star Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: A classic indica bred by Paradise Seeds, Sensi Star has been around for decades and continues to hold its own amongst today’s many popular strains. Sensi Star is known for its powerful high as well as also being a heavy yielder that consistently produces buds blanketed in resin.

Grow Techniques: Paradise Seeds celebrates this strain’s ability to be grown indoors or outdoors successfully. They also note that growing hydroponically or in soil works well. Indoors, you can maximize the yield by using SOG (sea of green) or SCROG (screen of green) methods. Promote bushy growth by topping the plants while they are in vegetative growth. The buds produced are very dense, so keep them away from excess moisture to prevent mold.

Flowering Time: 8 to 9 weeks

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Moderate

Climate: Sensi Star likes a controlled, drier climate with temperatures between 68 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Grows well indoors or outdoors.

Feeding: Feed this strain with a normal feeding regimen to achieve quality results.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Pineapple Kush Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Pineapple Kush was first produced by crossing Pineapple with Master Kush. Kush strains are generally known for their pungent, piney aroma, and this cross sweetens the flavor with tropical notes. This popular Kush variety offers a quality cerebral high with uplifting effects that allow the consumer to stay active and engaged.

Grow Techniques: Overall, Pineapple Kush is an easy strain for novice growers. Keep it indoors to provide an ideal climate, and try growing in soil or hydroponically. Consider using the SOG (sea of green) method while keeping the plants tightly pruned to direct growth to the top colas. To keep plants from falling over, trellis for support as the buds put on density.

Flowering Time: 8 weeks

Yield: Moderate to high

Grow Difficulty: Easy to moderate

Climate: Unlike some Kush strains, Pineapple Kush can handle higher humidity levels without having issues with mold. It prefers a temperature between 68 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Pineapple Kush does best indoors in a controlled climate.

Feeding: Like all OG varieties, feed on the heavier side. Go heavy on the CalMag and top dress the soils with phosphorus-rich nutrients when going into flowering.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Sweet Tooth Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Sweet Tooth is an indica-dominant strain that was created by crossing three landrace strains in the early 2000s. Stemming from Afghani, Nepalese, and Hawaiian genetics, this award-winning strain has a sweet and fruity flavor, and its effects are deeply relaxing and euphoric.

Grow Techniques: Sweet Tooth is as enjoyable to grow as it is to consume. It offers heavy yields while also being a low-maintenance plant. It is generally pest-resistant and has a strong immune system. Grow this strain indoors or outdoors, and prune the dense indica foliage to promote airflow around the buds.

Flowering Time: 8 to 9 weeks

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Easy

Climate: Sweet Tooth likes a cooler climate than most strains. Ideally, keep this strain between 68 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: This strain grows well either indoors or outdoors. 

Feeding: Feed heavily during the vegetative stage to encourage a quality growth structure and to help the plant develop before its flowering cycle. Use silica to help keep the branches strong as Sweet Tooth’s buds gain weight.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Cinderella 99 Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Bred by Mr. Soul of Brothers Grimm, Cinderella 99 is the powerhouse cross between Shiva Skunk and Jack Herer. Also known as “Cindy 99,” this hybrid strain offers an uplifting cerebral high paired with a fruity flavor.

Grow Techniques: Cinderella 99 is a great option for growing indoors because of its size and stature. It’s popular for either hydroponic or soil-based growing, but the strong aromas and flavors are best realized in soil. The strain needs to be topped and trained if you want a bushy, even canopy.

Flowering Time: 8 weeks 

Yield: High 

Grow Difficulty: Easy to moderate

Climate: A consistent climate will help this strain hold onto its flavor. Try to keep it between 68 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Though popularly grown indoors where conditions are better controlled, Cindy 99 can also be cultivated outdoors. 

Feeding: Feed with organic nutrients through compost teas and top dressing. If Cindy 99 is planted into a quality soil, this plant will do well without much help.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Purple Haze Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Purple Haze is a classic sativa strain made popular by the late Jimi Hendrix. Thought to be a cross of Purple Thai and Haze, this strain offers a stimulating and euphoric high. Its flavor is fruity, sweet, and earthy.

Grow Techniques: Known to be a hardy, resilient strain, Purple Haze is a good choice for novice growers. Grow outside with healthy soil, or grow hydroponically. Prune and top the plant to keep a uniform and bushy shape while making sure to support the colas as they develop. The strain does not always produce purple buds, but you can lower the temperature of your grow room or grow outside to coerce purple hues.

Flowering Time: 8-9 weeks

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Easy

Climate: Purple Haze does fine in northerly climates with colder nights, but prefers temperatures between 65 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Outdoor gardens tend to produce bigger yields, but Purple Haze does well indoors as well.

Feeding: Feed moderately during flowering, then bump up the phosphorus to maximize the yield.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing Berry White Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: Berry White is a cross between the well-known strains White Widow and Blueberry. Combining these famous strains produced a flavorful, resinous, well-balanced hybrid with effects that pull from both sides of the indica-sativa spectrum, leaving the consumer feeling relaxed while still engaged by conversation and activity.

Grow Techniques: A relatively easy strain to manage, Berry White has a good plant structure, which means less need for pruning. Hydroponic growing helps promote resin production, while soil lends to the flavor profile. Train the plant and remove lower foliage to increase the yield.

Flowering Time: 7-8 weeks

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Easy

Climate: Berry White likes a warmer climate at night to reach its full potential. The plant handles mold well, making it a good candidate for variable humidity. Ideal temperature for Berry White ranges between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: Berry White will produce well indoors or out. Growing in soils outdoors can help develop a stronger blueberry aroma.

Feeding: Moderate feeding should keep this hybrid strain happy.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.

Tips for Growing God Bud Cannabis

Ever wanted to grow your favorite strain? Leafly and General Hydroponics are teaming up on a series of grow guides that will equip you with all the tips and tricks you need to grow different strains successfully.


Strain Overview: A longtime favorite from British Columbia, God Bud was bred by Jordan of the Islands, who mixed a Canadian strain known as “God” with Purple Skunk and Hawaiian. God Bud is a powerful indica strain that offers potent medicinal properties and a sweet aroma of berry, lavender, and pine.

Grow Techniques: This strain can be grown indoors or outdoors in a hydroponic or soil setup. The plants and buds grow dense, so prune and train them to maintain airflow while using trellising to keep ample space between buds. God Bud’s flowers develop loads of sticky resin, making it a great plant for creating hash.

Flowering Time: 7 weeks

Yield: High

Grow Difficulty: Moderate

Climate: God Bud can handle colder climates, but be careful of high humidity levels as the buds develop. A drop in temperature can cause the buds to take on purple hues, but this strain prefers temperatures between 65 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Indoor/Outdoor: God Bud can be grown either indoors or outdoors with success. 

Feeding: This indica strain requires heavier feeding. Keep the plant happy by top dressing with organic nutrients.


Thank you for visiting MDMMCC.com, the premier Medical Marijuana Certification Center in Maryland. Our Mission at the Maryland Medical Marijuana Certification Clinics (MDMMCC) is to provide the certification necessary for qualified patients to obtain Medical Marijuana in compliance with the Maryland Medical Marijuana Laws in the State of Maryland.  MDMMCC will have offices open throughout Maryland.